Art and artistic research in quadruple and quintuple helix innovation systems
The traditional understanding of arts emphasizes the aesthetic dimension of arts. Art and arts can also be understood (and re-invented) as a manifestation of knowledge, knowledge production and knowledge creation. Furthermore, knowledge production and knowledge creation extend to knowledge application and knowledge use. The here presented approach to arts introduces knowledge as an additional dimension for defining and understanding arts. This additional dimension does not replace, but extends the aesthetic dimension of arts, by this making the arts clearly multi-dimensional. Through knowledge creation, knowledge production, knowledge application, and knowledge use, research in the arts and arts-based innovation are being interconnected with research in the sciences and sciences-based innovation. Arts and artistic research add to the interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary spectrum of research organizations and of research networks, and can assist the sciences in building interdisciplinary arrangements. Arts and artistic research are now being regarded as drivers for forming and pluralizing interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary configurations and networks with research in the sciences and the application and use of knowledge and innovation in context of society, democracy, but also the economy.The concepts of the Quadruple Helix and Quintuple Helix innovation systems are explicitly sensitive for the roles of arts and of artistic research for innovation. Within context of that line of thinking, arts, artistic research and arts-based innovation are essential for the further evolution and progress of innovation systems. Universities of the arts and other higher education institutions of the arts represent crucial organizations for innovation systems (national and multi-level innovation systems). Innovation may not be narrowed down to economic concerns and economic activities. Innovation is more than only economics. "Arts, research, innovation, and society" (ARIS) contribute to creating the basis for new models of economic growth, where "growth in quality" challenges the traditional focus on "quantitative growth" of selected economic benchmarks. "Arts, research, innovation, and society" (ARIS) furthermore interrelates and cross-links with Quality of Democracy. ARIS indicates opportunities for a creative design or creative-design-processes in the further co-evolution of knowledge economy, knowledge society and knowledge democracy.
Carayannis, E. G. , Campbell, D.F.J. (2015)., Art and artistic research in quadruple and quintuple helix innovation systems, in G. Bast, E. G. Carayannis & D. F. J. Campbell (eds.), Arts, research, innovation and society, Dordrecht, Springer, pp. 29-51.
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