Experimentation in probability teaching and learning
This chapter explores the relationship between theoretical and empirical probability in experimentation-based teaching of probability. We examine previous research and a fresh small-scale teaching experiment in order to explore probability teaching, which involves students' (12–13 years old) experimentation with data.The literature review and the teaching experiment point to several challenges for teaching probability through experimentations. Students emphasize absolute frequencies and part–part relationships, which makes it difficult for them to understand the principle of replacement and end up with numerical values to probability estimates. Students also find it hard to compare and make inferences if the samples are made up with different numbers of observations.According to teaching strategies, the teaching experiment shows how experimentation encourages students to engage in questions of chance and probability. Among other things, it is also shown how variation of meaning-contexts supports students understanding of unfamiliar situations and how comparison-oriented questions can be used to promote students understanding of the relationship between theoretical and empirical probability.
Nilsson, P. (2014)., Experimentation in probability teaching and learning, in E. J. Chernoff & B. Sriraman (eds.), Probabilistic thinking, Dordrecht, Springer, pp. 509-532.
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