This chapter presents information about the role of models used for instructional design. While heuristics provide broad references for approaching instructional design, specific applications of procedures necessary to actually develop teaching and learning materials require more defined models. The purpose here is to promote a better understanding about the appropriate utilization of instructional design models. Instruction is posited here as including both teaching and learning, and that teaching and learning are inextricably connected with regard to the construction of knowledge and skills. Since the first appearance of instructional design models in the 1960s there has been an ever-increasing number of models published in both the instructional technology and other education literature based on the assumptions that instruction includes both teaching and learning. While there are hundreds of instructional design models, there have been only a few major distinctions among them, until recently. Still, instructional design models provide conceptual tools to visualize, direct, and manage processes for creating high-quality teaching and learning materials. The proper selection of instructional design models assists us in appropriately matching the right process with the right situation. Thus, instructional design models serve as a valuable source for matching the right creative process to the right design situation as well as an effective framework for conducting instructional design research.
Maribe Branch, R. , Kopcha, T. J. (2014)., Instructional design models, in J. Elen (ed.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology, Dordrecht, Springer, pp. 77-87.
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